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Keonjhar District Profile

The Keonjhar District is known as the daughter of the State of Odisha due to its same shape in the map. Agriculture is the main economic activity in the district followed by mining and quarrying activities. The district has got rich mineral reserves with huge deposits of iron ore and manganese. Besides, deposits of chromite, quartz and quartzite, pyrophillite etc. are alos reported from different parts of the district. There are 80 mines and 31 large / medium scale industries in the district of which 28 are mineral based. The large/ medium industries together provide employment to 8400 persons. The district is also rich in forest resources with 37.3 percent of the area under forest cover. It has huge Non Timber Forest Produce (NTFP) potential. Thus, collection of minor forest produce, making of sal leaf plates/ cup etc. are the major economic activities of people living in hilly track. Besides, livestock rearing particularly sheep, goat and piggery is another important economic activity for the tribal people.

Paddy is the main Khariff crop grown in the district. The average productivity of the crop is, however, 27.52 quintals per hectare during Khariff 2014-15 pulses, oilseeds and vegetables are the major crops grown during Rabi season. Though the climate of the district is most suitable for cultivation of off-season vegetables, the potential remains largely unexploited. Mango, cashew, guava and citrus are important crops of the district.

Production of various crops and the best optimum use of land is paramount for the farmers to yield best result from their land. In this context, we analyses occupational pattern in the district. Out of total population of 18.01 lakh, about 2.56 lakh are cultivators and 2.26 lakh are agriculture labourers. Nearly 72% of the district’s total labour force of 6.21 lakh, derive their livelihood from agriculture. This indicates that agrarian predominance of the district economy. The district has total geographical area of 8,31,000 Ha. Out of which 297873 Ha. (35.8%) is available for cultivation.

To sustain the production and productivity of the seasonal agriculture activities of the farmers, the banks provide short term credit to farmers, popularly known as crop loan through Kisan Credit Card (KCC). The quantum of loan sanctioned by banks under KCC is determined on the basis of scale of finance which is decided by the District Level Technical Committee (DLTC) for every crop under Khariff and Rabi.

The various State Govt. and Govt. of India programmes for agriculture development in the district are Rice Development, Sugarcane Development, Ragi Development, Jute & Mesta Development, Rashtriya Krushi Vikash Yojana (RKVY), National Programme on Organic Farming, NFSM (Pulse), work plan, Farm mechanization. These programmes are being implemented by Department of Agriculture. Keeping in view the erratic monsoon condition & available resources, thrust is being given on the new method of rice cultivation i.e. System of Rice Intensification (SRI), Line sowing/ Transplanting of High yielding & Hybrid varieities particularly in shallow low land Rice eco system and irrigated rice eco system, to bring more area under remunerative non paddy crops like oil seeds, cotton, maize, vegetables & inter cropping of pulses. Also steps are being taken for introduction of new varieties of HYV/ Hybrid varieties of seed, increase in seed replacement ration, acid soil management, capacity building of the farmers through different schemes being implemented by Agriculture and allied departments.

Further, as per the extent policy of Central and State Govt., farmers will get crop loan upto Rs.3.00 Lakh at 5% and on prompt repayment they will get interest rebate of 3%, thus getting crop loan at 2%. Further, the State Govt. is giving additional interest subvention of 1% up to the loan amount of Rs.50,000 thereby reducing the interest burden to 1% w.e.f. Rabi 2015-16. The crop loan disbursed under KCC is covered compulsorily under Prime Minister Fasal Bima Yojana (PMFBY) in respect of the insurable notified crops.

 Physical & administrative features

Total Geographical Area (Sq.mm) 8303
No. of Sub Divisions 3
No. of Blocks 13
No. of Villages 2122
No. of Panchayats 286

 Soil & Climate

Agro-climatic zone North Central Plateau and North Central Coastal Plain
Climate Moist Sub-humid to Dry sub-humid, short & mild winter
Soil Type Alluvial, Red and Yellow

 Land Utilization (Ha.)

Total area reported 831000
Forest Land 310000
Barren and uncultivable waste 67849
Permanent Pasture and Grazing Land 23084
Land under Miscellaneous tree crops 3851
Cultivable wasteland 32696
Current Fallow 51000
Other Fallow 35839
Total cultivated area 297873
Total or Gross Cropped Area 385927
Area Cultivated More than Once 88054
Cropping Intensity (GCA/NSA)% 126

 Rainfall & Ground Water

Rainfall (in mm) Normal Actual 2013-14 2014-15 2015-16 2016-17
1400 1452 1468 1455 1462
Variation from Normal 52 68 55 62
Availability of Ground Water (Ham) Net annual recharge Net annual draft Balance
NA NA NA

 Distribution of Land Holding

Classification of Holding Holding Area
Nos. % to Total Ha % to Total
< = 1 Ha. 196755 76.7 124703 42.3
> 1 to < = 2 Ha. 47654 18.6 123163 41.8
> 2 Ha. 12068 4.7 47100 16.0
Total 256477 100.0 294966 100.0

 Workers Profile (in’000)

Cultivators 213
Of the above, Small/ Marginal Farmers 180
Agricultural Labourers 226
Workers engaged in Household Industries 40
Workers engaged in Allied Agro-activities 7
Other workers 143

 Demographic Profile (in’000)

Category Total Male Female Rural Urban
Population 1801 906 895 1507 294
Scheduled Caste 209 105 104 166 43
Scheduled Tribe 818 405 412 733 85
Literate 922 570 352 796 126

 Households (in’000)

Total Households 485
Rural Households 348
BPL Households 185

 Household amenities (No.s in’000 Households)

Having brick/ stone/ concrete houses 203351
Having source of drinking water 304971
Having access of banking services 406629
Having electricity supply 243978
Having independent toilets 162654
Having radio/tv sets 278760

 Village-level Infrastructure (No.s)

Villages Electrified 1812
Villages having Agriculture Power Supply 97
Villages having Post Offices 684
Villages having Banking Facilities 2072
Villages having Primary Schools 1677
Villages having Primary Health Centres 77
Villages having Portable Water Supply 2066
Villages connected with Paved Approach Roads 1012

 Infrastructure relating to health & sanitation (No.s)

Anganwadis 3085
Primary Health Centres 65
Dispensaries 78
Hospitals 3

 Irrigation Coverage (Ha)

Total Area Available for Irrigation (NIA + Fallow)
Irrigation Potential Created
Net Irrigated Area (Irrigated area Kh 2009) 74132
Area irrigated by Canals/ Channels 54864
Area irrigated by Wells 6353
Area irrigated by Tanks 1005
Area irrigated by Other Sources 8005
Irrigation Potential Utilized (Gross Irrigated Area) 109164

 Area, Production & Yield of Major Crops

Crop Rabi 2015-16 Khariff 2015-16 Avg. Yield (Kg/Ha.)
Area (Ha) Prod (MT) Area (Ha) Prod (MT)
Paddy 167312 375114 170650 431080 2521
Vegetables 51095 743658 28310 407360 747
Maize 320 840 26330 46040 46
Biri 4530 1960 15920 8210 10
Arhar 6110 5630 922
Moong 8210 3980 7260 3940 512
Niger 1600 760 10610 3730 368

 Infrastructure for Development of allied activities

Veterinary Hospitals/ Dispensaries (No.s) 22
Disease Diagnostic Centres (No.s) 1
Artificial Insemination Centres (No.s) 307
Animal Breeding Farms (No.s) 2
Dairy Cooperative Societies (No.s) 123
Animal Market (No.s) 16
Fishermen Societies (No.s) 16
Fish seed farms (No.s) 5
Poultry hatcheries (No.s) 3

 Chemical fertilizer distribution network in the district

Wholesale Dealers 17 (OSCMF – 1, OAIC-1 & Private – 15)
Retail Dealers 506